[1] World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception. Effect of different progestagens in low oestrogen oral contraceptives on venous thromboembolic disease. Lancet 1995;346:1582-8.

[2] Jick H, Jick SS, Gurewich V, Myers MW, Vasilakis C. Risk of idiopathic cardiovascular death and nonfatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives with differing progestagen components. Lancet 1995;346:1589-93.

[3] Spitzer WO, Lewis MA, Heinemann LA, Thorogood M, MacRae KD. Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolic disorders: an international case-control study. Transnational Research Group on Oral Contraceptives and the Health of Young Women. BMJ 1996;312:83-8.

[4] Bloemenkamp KW, Rosendaal FR, Helmerhorst FM, Buller HR, Vandenbroucke JP. Enhancement by factor V Leiden mutation of risk of deep-vein thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives containing a third-generation progestagen. Lancet 1995;346:1593-6.

[5] Kemmeren JM, Algra A, Grobbee DE. Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thrombosis: meta-analysis. BMJ 2001;323:131-4.

[6] Heinemann LA, Lewis MA, Assmann A, Thiel C. Case control studies on venous thromboembolism: bias due to design? A methodological study on venous thromboembolism and steroid hormone use. Contraception 2002;65:207-14.

[7] Preston RA, Alonso A, Panzitta D, Zhang P, Karara AH. Additive effect of drospirenone/17-beta-estradiol in hypertensive postmenopausal women receiving enalapril. Am J Hypertens 2002;15:816-22.

[8] Krattenmacher R. Drospirenone: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of a unique progestogen. Contraception 2000;62:29-38.

[9] Rübig A. Drospirenone: a new cardiovascular-active progestin with antialdosterone and antiandrogenic properties. Climacteric 2003; 6 Suppl 3:49-54.

[10] Schürmann R, Holler T, Benda N. Estradiol and drospirenone for climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of three dose regime. Climacteric 2004;7:189-96.

[11] Warming L, Ravn P, Nielsen T, Christiansen C. Safety and efficacy of drospirenone used in a continuous combination with 17beta-estradiol for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Climacteric 2004;7:103-11.

[12] Heinemann LAJ, on behalf of the European Active Surveillance Study Group. The European Active Surveillance Study on oral contraceptive prescribing practice, benefits and safety (EURAS) --- the study protocol. LAMSO 2001; 2: DOI 10.1072/L0204323.

[13] Heinemann LA, Dinger J. Safety of a new oral contraceptive containing drospirenone. Drug Safety 2004;27(13):1001-1018.

[14] Crosignani PG, La Vecchia C. Concordant and discordant effects on cardiovascular risks exerted by oestrogen and progestogen in women using oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy. ESHRE Capri Workshop Group. Hum Reprod Update 1999;5:681-7.

[15] Suissa S, Blais L, Spitzer WO, Cusson J, Lewis M, Heinemann L. First-time use of newer oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thromboembolism. Contraception 1997;56:141-6.

[16] Heinemann LA. The changing scene: an unnecessary pill crisis. Hum Reprod Update 1999;5:746-55.

[17] Lewis MA, MacRae KD, Kuhl-Habich D, Bruppacher R, Heinemann AJ, Spitzer WO. The differential risk of oral contraceptives: the impact of full exposure history. Hum Reprod 1999;14:1493-9.

[18] Lewis MA. The Transnational Study on Oral Contraceptives and the Health of Young Women: methods, results, new analyses and the healthy user effect. Hum Reprod Update 1999;5:707-20.

[19] Heinemann LA, Garbe E, Farmer R, Lewis MA. Venous thromboembolism and oral contraceptive use: a methodological study of diagnostic suspicion and referral bias. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2000;5:183-91.

[20] European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Combined oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism. The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) public assessment report. London, 2001 28 [online]. Available from URL: 2001 [Accessed Oct. 30, 2006].

[21] Scurr JH, Machin SJ, Bailey-King S, Mackie IJ, McDonald S, Smith PDC: Frequency and prevention of symptomless deep-vein thrombosis in long-haul flights: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001;357:1485-1489.

[22] Belcaro C, Geroulakos G, Nicolaides AN, Myers KA, Winford M. Venous thromboembolism from air travel: the LONFLIT Study. Angiology 2001;52:369-374.

[23] Schwarz T, Siegert G, Oettler W, et al. Venous thrombosis following long-haul flights. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:2759-2764.

[24] Potthoff P, Heinemann LAJ, Güther B. A household panel as a tool for cost-effective health-related population surveys: validity of the “Healthcare Access Panel”. German Medical Science 2004;2:Doc05/20040716. Available from URL: [Accessed Oct. 30, 2006].

[25] Güther B. Access Panel --- Quality aspects and experience. In: Streich W, Braun B, Helmert U (eds). Surveys in public health --- developments and perspectives in research and political counseling. Sankt Augustin: Asgard Verlag, 2005. p.91-102.

[26] Potthoff P, Güther B. Access panel in the context of health research. Forum Public Health 2005;13(47):16.

[27] Grady WR, Hayward MD, Yagi J. Contraceptive failure in the United States: estimates from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth. Fam Plann Perspect 1986 Sep-Oct;18(5):200-9.

[28] Jones EF, Forrest JD. Contraceptive failure rates based on the 1988 NSFG. Fam Plann Perspect 1992 Jan-Feb;24(1):12-9.

[29] Fu H, Darroch JE, Haas T, Ranjit N. Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Fam Plann Perspect 1999 Mar-Apr;31(2):56-63.

[30] Harrison-Woolrych M, Ashton J, Coulter D. Uterine perforation on intrauterine device insertion: is the incidence higher than previously reported? Contraception 2003;67:53-56

[31] Danish Health Registers [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed Oct. 28, 2006].

[32] Federal Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook 2006 for the Federal Republic of Germany. Wiesbaden 2006;54.

[33] Jürgen C. Dinger, Lothar A. J. Heinemann, Dörthe Kühl-Habich. The safety of a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive: final results from the European Active Surveillance study on Oral Contraceptives based on 142,475 women-years of observation. Contraception 2007;75 344-354